Natural rubber-based cushion gum compound formulation at various type and dosage of rubber processing oil and tackifier resin

Santi Puspitasari, Norma Arisanti Kinasih, Arief Ramadhan, Adi Cifriadi, Mochammad Chalid

Abstract


Cold retreading technique dominates retreaded tire manufacturing process. The technique applies rubber cushion gum compound as adhesion medium to bond new tread with a worn old tire. High-quality cushion gum compound mainly requires good adhesive strength. Tackiness of the rubber compound can be improved by addition of tackifier resin and rubber processing oil (RPO). The research was aimed to evaluate the performance of various types and dosages of tackifier resin and bio-based RPO to physic-mechanical properties of cushion gum. A method in the manufacture of natural rubber-based cushion gum compound was in accordance with ASTM D 3182. Cushion gum rubber compound formula was designed by using bio-based RPO such as pine tar oil at 5 and 12 phr and three types of tackifier resin such as rosin resin, phenolic resin, and hydrocarbon resin at 3 and 7 phr. Petroleum-based RPO and commercial cushion gum were selected as reference material. Curing characteristic and physic-mechanical properties test results were used as a reference to determine cushion gum quality. The observation during experiment indicated that natural rubber-based cushion gum compound formulated with addition of 5 phr rosin resin and 5 phr pine tar oil (code ZH4) has the closest curing characteristic and physic-mechanical properties to commercial cushion gum.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdul-Kader, W., & Haque, M. S. (2011). Sustainable tyre remanufacturing: An agent-based simulation modelling approach. International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 4(4), 330–347. https://doi.org/10.1080/19397038.2011.581392

Ahmed, S. A., Moren, T., Sehlstedt-Persson, M., & Blom, A. (2017). Effect of oil impregnation on water repellency, dimensional stability and mold susceptibility of thermally modifed European Aspen and downy birch wood. Journal of Wood Science, 63, 74–82. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10086-016-1595-y

ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). (2010). ASTM D2240-05 Standard test method for rubber property – Durometer hardness. Pennsylvania, USA: ASTM.

ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). (2013). ASTM D412-06ae2 Standard test method for vulcanized rubber and thermolastic elastomers – Tension. Pennsylvania, USA: ASTM.

ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). (2016). ASTM D3182 Standard pratice for rubbermaterials, equipment, and procedures for mixing standard compounds and preparing standard vulcanized sheets. Pennsylvania, USA: ASTM.

ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). (2017). ASTM D413-98 Standard test method for rubber property – Adhesion to flexible substrate. Pennsylvania, USA: ASTM.

Ayres, R., Ferrer, G., & Leynseele, T. V. (1997). Ecoefciency, asset recovery and remanufacturing. European Management Journal, 15(5), 557–574. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0263-2373(97)00035-2

Banerjee, B. (2019). Tyre retreading. Deutsch: CPI Books GmbH.

Basak, G. C., Bandyopadhyay, A., & Bhowmick, A. K. (2012). The role of tackifers on the auto-adhesion behaviour of EPDM rubber. Journal of Material Science, 47, 3166–3176. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-011-6151-y

Braun-Falco, O., Plewig, G., & Wolff, H. H. (1991). Dermatology. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

Bergmann, C., & Trimbach, J. (2014). Influence of plasticizers on the properties of natural rubber based compound. KGK Rubberpoint, 67(7), 40–49.

Ciesielski, A. (1999). An intoduction to rubber technology. UK: RAPRA Technology Ltd.

Dabic-Ostojic, S., Miljus, M., Bojovic, N., Glisovic, N., & Milenkovic, M. (2014). Applying a mathematical approach to improve the tire retreading process. Resources, Conservation and

Recycling, 86, 107–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2014.02.007

Dewan Karet Indonesia. (2018). Data industri karet 2018. Jakarta, Indonesia: Dekarindo.

Formela, K., Wasowicz, D., Formela, M., Hejna, A., & Haponiuk, J. (2015). Curing characteristics, mechanical and thermal properties of reclaimed ground tire rubber cured with various vulcanizing

systems. Iranian Polymer Journal, 24, 289–297. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13726-015-0320-9

Khimi, S. R., & Pickering, K. L. (2014). A new method to predict optimum cure time of rubber compound using dynamic mechanical analysis. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 131(6), 40008. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.40008

Mohamed, R., Zain, N. W., Shafe, N. A., & Norizan, M. N. (2013). Aromatic and epoxidised oil curing and rebound resilience characteristic and their humidity effect of hardness on NR vulcanizates. Advanced Materials Research, 812, 138–144. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.812.138

Niza, S., Santos, E., Costa, L., Ribeiro, P., & Ferrao, P. (2014). Extended producer responsibility policy in Portugal: A strategy towards improving waste management performance. Journal of

Cleaner Production, 117(1), 277–287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.07.037

Oh, J., Yoo, Y. H., Yoo, I. S., Huh, Y. I., Chaki, T. K., & Nah, C. (2014). Effect of plasticizer and curing system on freezing resistance of rubbers. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 131, 39795. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.39795

Oter, M., Karaagac, B., & Deniz, V. (2011). Substitution of aromatic processing oils in rubber compounds. KGK Rubberpont, 64(9), 48–51.

Pajarito, B. (2015). Effect of ingredient loading on vulcanization characteristic of a natural rubber compound. Advanced Material Research, 1125, 50–54. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientifc.

net/AMR.1125.50

Pakhathirathien, C., Pearuang, K., Rungvichanniwat, A., Kaesaman, A., & Nakason, C. (2016). Acomparative study of stearyl aromatic esters and aromatic oil as processing aids in natural rubber compounds. Songklanarin Journal of Science and Technology, 38(5), 501–506.

Pechurai, W., Chiangta, W., & Tharuen, P. (2015). Effect of vegetable oils as processing aids in SBR compound. Macromolecular Symposia, 354, 191–196. https://doi.org/10.1002/masy.201400079

Poh, B. T., & Ong, L. N. (2007). Adhesion properties of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR-L) – based adhesieve in the presence of phenol formaldehyde resin. Express Polymer Letters, 1(10), 654–659. https://doi.org/10.3144/expresspolymlett.2007.89

Puspitasari, S., Kinasih, N. A., Cifriadi, A., Ramadhan, A., Hadi, Z. K., Wahyuni, N. P., & Chalid, M. (2020). Seleksi resin dan rubber processing oil (RPO) dalam pembuatan cushion gum sebagai perekat ban vulkanisir. Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik, 36(1), 9–16. https://doi.org/10.20543/mkkp.v36i1.6105

Ramcharan. (2014). Product development information. Chennai, India: Ramcharan.

Sasikumar, P., Kannan, G., & Haq, A. N. (2010). A multi-echelon reverse logistics network design for product recovery – a case of truck tire remanufacturing. International Journal of Advance Manufacturing Technology, 49, 1223–1234. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-009-2470-4

Simic, V., & Dabic-Ostojic, S. (2016). Intervalparameter chance-constrained programming model for uncertainty-based decision making in tire retreading industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 167, 1490–1498. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.10.122

Syamin, Y. M., Azemi, S., & Dzarani, K. (2017). Evaluation of cooking oil as processing additive for natural rubber. ASEAN Journal of Science and Technology Development, 34(1), 17–25. https://doi.org/10.29037/ajstd.71

Thaijaroen, W. (2011). Effect of tackifers on mechanical and dynamic properties of carbon black filled NR vulcanizate. Polymer Engineering and Science, 51, 2465–2472. https://doi.org/10.1002/pen.22033

Thomas, B.S., & Gupta, R.C. (2016). Properties of high strength concrete containing scrap tire rubber. Journal of Cleaner Production, 116(1), 86–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.11.019

Xu, H., Fan, T., Ye, N., Wu, W., Huang, D., Wang, D., Wang, Z., & Zhang, L. (2020). Platicization effect of bio-based plasticizers from soybean oil for tire tread rubber. Polymers, 12, 623–632. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12030623

Zhang, J., Wang, B., Liu, X., Cheng, L., Yan, H., Ding, Q., Tan, J., & Yang, W. (2019). Energy-saving performance and production accuracy of the direct-pressure tire curing technology with an

expandable steel internal mold. Applied Science, 10, 79–93. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010079




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20543/mkkp.v37i2.6531

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Santi Puspitasari, Norma Arisanti Kinasih, Arief Ramadhan, Adi Cifriadi, Mochammad Chalid

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 

MKKP indexed by:

Cover Page Cover Page     Cover Page    Cover Page     Cover Page     Cover Page     Cover Page     Cover Page     Cover Page     Cover Page    Cover Page    Cover Page    Cover Page     Cover Page     Cover Page   Cover Page   Cover Page   Cover Page   Cover Page              

 

 

 

Free counters!