Oil Palm Based Cellulose Esters as Raw Material for Environmentally Friendly Bio-plastic

Tjahjono Herawan, Meta Rivani, Halimatudahliana Halimatudahliana, Suryo Irawan

Abstract


Besides producing oil, oil palm is also produces huge amount of biomass such as empty fruit bunch.  Both of those products had a potential to be used as a source of plastic raw materials called bio-plastics. Long-chain fatty acid source can be obtained from crude palm oil (palmitic acid and oleic acid) and palm kernel oil (lauric acid) while cellulose can be obtained from oil palm empty fruit bunch waste (OPEFB). Cellulose was produced from OPEFB by alkaline process on pilot plant scale. The yield of α-cellulose obtained as much as 32-38% of the OPEFB processed. The cellulose ester was synthesized by esterification reaction between cellulose of OPEFB and modified fatty acid from palm oil in a mild condition. Conversion of cellulose ester produced reached 92.7% with percent increase weight reach 460%, Degree Substitution (DS)  2.21 and melting point 201 oC. The tensile strength of the cellulose ester film was lower than tensile strength of petroleum-based plastics (Low Density Poly Ethylene/LDPE), which averaged 73 kg/cm2 versus 108 kg/cm2, so it was necessary to add additives to increase tensile strength and elasticity properties.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Freire, C. S. R., Silvestre, A. J. D., Neto, C. P., Gandini, A., Martin, L., & Mondragon, I. (2008). Composites based on acylated cellulose fibers and low-density polyethylene: Effect of the fiber content, degree of substitution and fatty acid chain length on final properties. Composites Science and Technology, 68(15-16), 3358-3364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2008.09.008

Chauvelon, G., Gergaud, N., Saulnier, L., Lourdin, D., Buleon, A., Thibault, J. F., & Krausz, P. (2000). Esterification of cellulose-enriched agricultural by-products and characterization of mechanical properties of cellulosic films. Carbohydrate Polymers, 42(4), 385–392. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8617(99)00187-3

Ciacco, G. T., Liebert, T. F., Frollini, E., & Heinze, T. J. (2003). Application of the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide/tetrabutyl-ammonium flouride trihydrate as reaction medium for the homogeneous acylation of Sisal cellulose. Cellulose, 10(2), 125-132. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024064018664

Crepy, L., Chaveriat, L., Banoub, J., Martin, P., & Joly, N. (2009). Synthesis of cellulose fatty esters as plastics – Influence of the degree of substitution and the fatty chain length on mechanical properties. ChemSusChem: Chemistry & Sustainability Energy & Materials, 2(2), 165-170. https://doi.org/10.1002/cssc.200800171

Crepy, L., Miri, V., Joly, N., Martin, P., & Lefebvre, J. (2011). Effect of side chain length on structure and thermomechanical properties of fully substituted cellulose fatty esters. Carbohydrate Polymers, 83(21), 1812-1820. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.10.045

El Seoud, O. A., Regiani, A., & Frollini, E. (2000). Derivatization of cellulose in homogeneous conditions. A brief review. In: Frollini E., Leão A.L. and Mattoso L.H.C. (eds). Natural Polymers and Agrofibers Composites, São Carlos, Brazil, 73-90.

Hairani, N., Harahap, H., Herawan, T., & Taslim. (2015). The effect of glycerol and oil palm empty fruit bunches microcrystalline cellulose loading on tensile properties and water absorption of cassava starch composite. Advanced Materials Research, 1123, 151-154. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.1123.151

Heinze, T., Liebert, T. F., Pfeiffer, K. S., & Hussain, M. A. (2003). Unconventional cellulose esters: Synthesis, characterization and structure-property relations. Cellulose, 10(3), 283-296. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025117327970

Herawan, T., & Rivani, M. (2015). Synthesis of biodegradable plastic films from oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose. Advanced Materials Research, 1123, 173-176. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.1123.173

Herawan, T, Rivani, M., Sinaga, K., & Sofwan, A. G. (2013). Pembuatan mikrokristal selulosa tandan kosong sawit sebagai bahan baku pengisi tablet karoten sawit. Prosiding Seminar Insentif Riset SINas, 137-147.

Huang, F. Y. (2011). Synthesis and properties of cellulose stearate. Advanced Materials Research, 228-229, 919-924. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.228-229.919

Huang, F. Y., Yu, Y., & Wu, X. J. (2011). Characterization and properties of cellulose oleate. Advanced Materials Research, 197-198, 1306-1309. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.197-198.1306

Huang, Z., Tan Y., Zhang, Y., Liu X., Hu, H., Qin, Y., & Huang, H. (2012). Direct production of cellulose laurate by mechanical activation-strengthened solid phase synthesis. Bioresource Technology, 118, 624-627. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.05.082

Isroi, Cifriadi, A., Panji, T., Wibowo, N. A., & Syamsu, K. (2017). Bioplastic production from cellulose of oil palm empty fruit bunch. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 65(1), 1755-1315. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/65/1/012011

Joly, N., Granet, R., Branland, P., Verneuil, B., & Krausz, P. (2005). New methods for acylation of pure and sawdust-extracted cellulose by fatty acid derivatives – Thermal and mechanical analyses of cellulose-based plastic film. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 97(3), 1266-1278. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.21783

Ratanakamnuan, U., Manorom, W., & Inthasai, P. (2013). Preparation of biodegradable film from esterified corn husk cellulose. Advanced Materials Research, 701, 229-233. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.701.229

Vaca-Garcia, C., Thiebaud, S., Borredon, M. E., & Gozzelino, G. (1998). Cellulose esterification with fatty acids and acetic anhydride in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide medium. Journal of American Oil Chemists’ Society, 75(2), 315-319. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-998-0047-2

Zhang, A., Mei, L., Zhao, Z., Xie, J., Liu, C., & Sun, R. (2013). Homogeneous esterification of eucalyptus with palmitoyl chloride at room temperature. BioResources, 8(3), 4288-4297. https://doi.org/10.15376/biores.8.3.4288-4297




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20543/mkkp.v34i1.3634

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Tjahjono Herawan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 

MKKP indexed by:

Cover Page Cover Page     Cover Page    Cover Page     Cover Page     Cover Page     Cover Page     Cover Page     Cover Page     Cover Page    Cover Page    Cover Page    Cover Page     Cover Page     Cover Page   Cover Page   Cover Page   Cover Page   Cover Page              

 

 

 

Free counters!