Kinetika vulkanisasi campuran NR/EPDM dengan pendekatan model Deng-Isayev dan Kamal-Sorour

Ihda Novia Indrajati, Muhammad Sholeh

Abstract


Curing kinetics of natural rubber/ethylene propylene diene monomer (NR/EPDM) blends at different ratios of 2,2’-dithiobis(benzothiazole) (MBTS) and zinc diethyl dithiocarbamate (ZDEC) were studied. NR/EPDM blends were prepared using curative migration control technique. Kinetics studies employ Deng-Isayev and Kamal-Sorour models and kinetics parameters were evaluated using measured data from Moving Die Rheometer. Rate constant (k) and orders of reaction (n and m) were estimated through multivariable optimization using Matlab and activation energy (E) was determined using Arrhenius relationship. From the results, it is evident that the experimental data were in a good agreement with Kamal-Sorour model. It is also found that autocatalytic mechanism was more controlling than the others as indicated by k2>k1. Results also shows that rate constants were greatly influenced by temperature and the types of accelerator, while orders of reaction were dependent on temperature and independent on the types and amounts of accelerator. Combination of MBTS and ZDEC reduces energy activation of autocatalytic reaction. For desirable rate of curing, its ratio of 1.4 to 0.2 gave the lowest activation energy.

Keywords: kinetics study, vulcanization, NR/EPDM, Deng-Isayev, Kamal-Sorour.

ABSTRAK
Kinetika vulkanisasi campuran NR/EPDM pada berbagai rasio MBTS/ZDEC dipelajari dalam publikasi ini berdasarkan data output Moving Die Rheometer (MDR). Campuran NR/EPDM dibuat dengan teknik kontrol migrasi curatives. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah model empiris Deng-Isayev dan Kamal-Sorour. Konstanta kecepatan reaksi (k) dan orde reaksi (n dan m) ditentukan dengan optimasi multivariabel menggunakan perangkat lunak Matlab. Energi aktivasi (E) ditentukan dengan hubungan Arrhenius. Hasil studi menunjukkan data eksperimen dapat dideskripsikan dengan baik oleh model Kamal-Sorour. Mekanisme autokatalitik mendominasi mekanisme lainnya ditunjukkan dengan k2>k1. Konstanta kecepatan reaksi bergantung pada suhu dan jenis akselerator, sedangkan orde reaksi tidak tergantung pada suhu tetapi pada jenis dan jumlah akselerator. Kombinasi akselerator MBTS dan ZDEC menurunkan energi aktivasi reaksi autokatalisis. Rasio 1,4/0,2 merupakan kombinasi yang memberikan energi aktivasi cukup rendah dengan kecepatan reaksi yang tinggi.

Kata kunci: kinetika, vulkanisasi, NR/EPDM, Deng-Isayev, Kamal-Sorour.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahmadi, M., & Shojaei, A. (2013). Cure kinetic and network structure of NR/SBR composites reinforced by multiwall carbon nanotube and carbon blacks. Thermochimica Acta, 566, 238-248.

Akhlaghi, S., Kalaee, M., Mazinani, S., Jowdar, E., Nouri, A., Sharif, A., & Sedaghat, N. (2012). Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on isothermal cure kinetics, morphology and mechanical properties of EPDM rubber. Thermochimica Acta, 527, 91-98.

Allahbakhsh, A., Mazinani, S., Kalaee, M. R., & Sharif, F. (2013). Cure kinetics and chemorheology of EPDM/graphene oxide nanocomposites. Thermochimica Acta, 563, 22-32.

Arrilaga, A., Zaldua, A. M., Atxurra, R.M., & Farid, A. S. (2007). Techniques used for determining cure kinetics of rubber compounds. European Polymer Journal, 43, 4783-4799.

Bianchi, O., Fiorio, R., Martins, J. N., Zattera, A. J., Scuracchio. C. H., & Canto, L. B. (2009). Crosslinking kinetics of blends of ethylene vinyl acetate and ground tire rubber. Journal of Elastomer and Plastics, 41, 175-189.

Indra, S., Ismail, H., & Azura, A. R. (2013). Alkanolamide as an accelerator, iller-dispersant and a plasticizer in silica-filled natural rubber compounds. Polymer Testing, 32, 1313-1321.

Indrajati, I. N., & Sholeh, M. (2014). Pengaruh rasio MBTS/ZDEC pada campuran karet alam dan etilen propilen diena yang dibuat dengan teknik kontrol migrasi curative. Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik, 30(1), 43-52.

Janković, B. (2010). The kinetic analysis of isothermal curing reaction of an unsaturated polyester resin: Estimation of the density distribution function of the apparent activation energy. Chemical Engineering Journal, 162, 331-340.

Kalaee, M. R., Akhilaghi, S., Nouri, A., Mazinani, S., Mortezaei, M., Afshari, M., Maostafanezhad, D., Allahbakhsh, A., Dehagi, H. A., Amirsadri, A., & Gohari, D. P. (2011). Effect of nano-sized calcium carbonate on cure-kinetics and properties of polyester/epoxy blend powder coatings. Progress in Organic Coatings, 71, 173-180.

Khang, T. H., & Ariff, Z. M. (2012). Vulcanization kinetic study of natural rubber compounds having different formulation variables. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 109, 1545-1553.

Leroy, E., Souid, A., & Deterre, R. (2013a). A continuous kinetic model of rubber vulcanization predicting induction and reversion. Polymer Testing, 32, 575-582.

Leroy, E., Souid, A., Sarda, A., & Deterre, R. (2013b). A knowledge based approach for elastomer cure kinetic parameters estimation. Polymer Testing, 32, 9-14.

Marzocca, A. J., & Mansilla, M. A. (2006). Vulcanization kinetic of styrene-butadiene rubber by sulfur/TBBS. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 101, 35-41.

Milani, G., & Milani, F. (2013). Kinetic finite element model to optimize sulfur vulcanization to extruded EPDM weathe-strips. Polymer Engineering and Science, 53(2), 353-369.

Wu, J., Xing, W., Huang, G., Li, H., Tang, M., Wu, S., & Liu, Y. (2013). Vulcanization kinetics of graphene/natural rubber nanocomposites. Polymer, 54, 3314-3323.

Yeoh, O. H. (2012). Mathematical modeling of vulcanization characteristic. Rubber Chemistry and Technology, 85(3), 482-492.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20543/mkkp.v30i2.130

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2014 Ihda Novia Indrajati, Muhammad Sholeh

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 

MKKP indexed by:

Cover Page Cover Page     Cover Page    Cover Page     Cover Page     Cover Page     Cover Page     Cover Page     Cover Page     Cover Page    Cover Page    Cover Page    Cover Page     Cover Page     Cover Page   Cover Page   Cover Page   Cover Page   Cover Page              

 

 

 

Free counters!