Initial Study of Thoicyianate Microbial Degradation by Isolates from Poluted Soil in Gold Mining Area in Indonesia

Maman Rahmansyah Rakam


This study was conducted to clarify the ability of denitrifying bacterial group utilized nitrogen (N) due to decompose N in thiocyanate structure.Thiocyanate is a chemical that has likely pollutant to the environment, produced by some industrial activities. Denitrifying bacterial group obtained from bulk of sluge samples collected from the gold tailing, and some soil samples collected suround the gold mining site. The samples then were taken to the Microbiology Laboratory, Research Center for Biology, to investigate. Samples were initially acclimatized by potassium nitrate (KNO3), acetonitrile, and liquid waste or sludge. The result showed that  denitrifying bacteria in the samples utilize 60 to 90% NO3-N (nitrate) in 42 days incubation. Isolation process were then conducted in each samples, and four denitrification bacterial, named as AN, Ea, L7T5, and PETI-7 isolates were attained. The isolates formerly cultured in a denitrifying bacterial medium containing KSCN (Potassium Thiocyanate), amended with glucose and sodium acetate for carbon source. Those four isolates performed satisfactory in aerobic and anaerobic cultures medium to denitrifying process, and utilize glucose and sodium acetate as co-carbon source, but all bacterial isolates were unable to use thiocyanate as the single carbon source. Thiocyanate degradation performed by the isolates through a simultaneous conversion along with denitrification process. This phenomenon turn to open the opportunity on  role of application denitrifying bacteria become bioresources material in efforts to decompost thiocyanate.


denitrifying bacteria, degradation, mining waste, thiocyanate

Full Text:




Andreoni V., Ferrari A., Pagani A., Sorlini C., Tandoi V., Treccani V., 1988, Thiocyanate degradation by denitrifying mixed cultures of bacteria, Ann Microbiol Enzimol 38:193-200.

Broman E., Jawad A., Wu X., Christel S., Ni G., Lopez-Fernandez M., Sundkvist JE., Dopson M., 2017, Low temperature, autotrophic microbial denitrification using thiosulfate or thiocyanate as electron donor, Biodegradation 28:287-301.

Budaev SL., Batoeva AA., Tsybikova BA., 2015, Degradation of thiocyanate in aqueous solution by persulfate activated ferric ion, Minerals Engineering 81: 88–95.

Carvalhal MLC., Oliveira MS., Alterthum F., 1991, An economical and time saving alternative to the most probable-number method for the enumeration of microorganisms, Journal of Microbiological Methods 14:165-170.

Greenberg AE., Clesceri LS., Eaton AD., 1992, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, American Public Health Association, Washington DC.

Gould WD., King M., Mohapatra BR., Cameron RA., Kapoor A., Koren DW., 2012, A critical review on destruction of thiocyanate in mining effluents, Minerals Engineering 34:38-47.

Happold FC., Johnstone KI., Roger HS., Youatt JB., 1954, The isolation and characteristics of an organisms oxidizing thiocyanate, J Gen Microbiol 10:261-266.

Happold FC., Jones GL., Pratt DB., 1958, Utilization of thiocyanate by Thiobacillus thioparus and T. thiocyano-oxidans, Nature 182:266-267.

Huang H., Feng C., Pan X., Wu H., Yuan R., Wu C., Wei C., 2013, Thiocyanate oxidation by coculture from a coke wastewater treatment plant, Journal of Biomaterials and Nano-biotechnology 4:37-46. 2013.42A005

Katayama Y., Kuraishi H., 1978, Characteristics of Thiobacillus thioparus and its thiocyanate assimilation, Can J Microbiol 24:804-810.

Katayama Y., Kanagawa T., Kuraishi H., 1993, Emission of carbonyl sulphide by Thiobacillus thioparus grown with thiocyanate in pure and mixed cultures, FEMS Microbiol Lett 114:223-228.

Katayama Y., Matsushita Y., Kaneko M., Kondo M., Mizuno T., Nyunoya H., 1998, Cloning of genes coding for the subunits of thiocyanate hydrolase of Thiobacillus thioparus THI 115 and their evolutionary relationships to nitrile hydratase, J Bacteriol 180:2583-2589.

Katayama Y., Narahara Y., Inoue Y., Amano F., Kanagawa T, Kuraishi H., 1992. A thiocyanate hydrolase of Thiobacillus thioparus. A novel enzyme catalyzing the formation of carbonyl sulphide from thiocyanate, J Biol Chem 267:9170-9175.

Kelly DP., Baker SC., 1990. The organosulphur cycle: aerobic and anaerobic processes leading to turnover of C1–sulphur compounds, FEMS Microbiol Rev 87:241-246.

de Kruyff CD., van der Walt JI., Schwartz, 1957, The utilization of thiocyanate and nitrate by Thiobacilli, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 23:305-316.

KSDEA (Kementrian Sumberdaya dan Energi Australia), 2008, Pengelolaan Sianida. Seri Buku Praktek Kerja Unggulan Program Pembangunan Berkelanjutan untuk Industri Pertambangan. Pemerintahan Persemakmur-an Australia. 99 h., Diakses 12 Juni 2017.

Mekuto L., Ntwampe, SKO., Kena M, Golela MT., Amodu OS., 2016, Free cyanide and thiocyanate biodegradation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa STK 03 capable of heterotrophic nitrification under alkaline conditions, Short Reports, 3 Biotech (2016) 6:6. DOI 10.1007/s13205-015-0317-2.

Rahman SF., Kantor RS., Huddy R., Thomas BC., van Zyl AW., Harrison STL., Banfield JF., 2016, Genome resolved metagenomics of a bioremediation system for degradation of thiocyanate in mine water containing suspended solid tailings, Microbiology Open, 2017;6:e446. mbo3.446

Ryu BG., Kim J., Yoo G., Lim JT., Kim W., Han JI., Yang JW., 2014, Microalgae-mediated simultaneous treatment of toxic thiocyanate and production of biodiesel. Bioresource Technol 158:166–173. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.01.128 Cross Ref Google Scholar.

Smith NA., Kelly DP., 1988, Oxidation of carbon disulphide as the sole source of energy for the autotrophic growth of Thiobacillus thioparus strain TK-m, J Gen Microbiol 134: 3041-3048.

Sorokin DY., Lysenko AM., Mityushina LL., Tourova TP., Jones BE., Rainey FA., Robertson LA., Kuenen JG., 2001, Thioalkalimicrobium sibiricum, Thioalkali-microbium aerophilum gen. nov., sp. and Thialkalivibrio versutus, Thialkalivi-brionitratis, Thialkalivibrio denitrificans gen. nov., sp. nov., new obligately alkaliphilic and obligately chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from soda lakes, Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 5:565-580.

Sorokin DY., Tourova TP., Lysenko AM., Mityushina LL., Kuenen JG., 2002, Thialkalivibrio thiocyanoxidans sp. nov. and Thialkalivibrio paradoxus sp. nov., novel alkaliphilic, obligately autotrophic, sulphur-oxidizing bacteria from soda lakes capable of growth on thiocyanate, Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:657-664.

Wood JL., 1975, Biochemistry: Thiocyanic Acid and its Derivaties, pp. 156-252. Edited by AA. Newman, London, New York, San Francisco: Academic Press.

Youatt JB., 1954, Studies on the metabolism of Thiobacillus thiocyanooxidans, J Gen Microbiol 11:139-149.

van Zyl AW., Huddy R., Harrison STL., van Hille RP., 2015, Characterization of the complex microbial community associated with the ASTER™ thiocyanate biodegradation system, Minerals Engineering 76:65–71.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 photo doaj_logo_zps1elblh0p.pngresearcherid photo Crossref_Logoresearcherid


Copyright of Research Journal of Industrial Pollution Prevention Technology (p-ISSN 2087-0965 | e-ISSN 2503-5010). Powered by OJS, Theme design credited to MEV edited by JRTPPI


           Creative Commons License