Teknologi Esktrasi dan Cara Pemisahannya untuk Mendapatkan Kembali Karotenoid dari Minyak Sawit : Suatu Tinjauan

Agus Sudibyo, Sardjono Sardjono


Crude palm oil (CPO)is the richest natural plant source of carotenoids in terms of retinol (pro-vitamin A) equivalent, whereas palm oil mill effluent (POME) is generated from palm oil industry that contains oil and carotenes that used to be treated before discharge. Carotenoids are importance in animals and humans for the purpose of the enhancement of immune response, conversion of vitamin A and scavenging of oxygen radicals. This component has different nutritional  functions and benefits to humaan health. The growing interest in the other natural sources of beta-carotene and growing awareness to prevent pollution has stimulated the industrial use of CPO and POME as a raw material for carotenoids extraction. Various technologies of extraction and separation have been developed in order to recover of carotenoids.This article reports on various technologies that have been developed in order to recover of carotenoids from being destroyed in commercial refining of palm oil and effects of some various treatments on the extraction end separation for carotenoid from palm oil and carotenoids concentration. Principally, there are different technologies, and there is one some future which is the use of solvent. Solvent plays important role  in the most technologiest, however the problem of solvents which are used is that they posses potentiaal fire health and environmental hazards. Hence selection of the  most safe, environmentally friendly and cost effective solvent is important to design of alternative extraction methods.Chemical molecular product design is one of the methods that are becoming more popular nowadays for finding solvent with the desired properties prior to experimental testing.


Minyak sawit kasar merupakan sumber karotenoid terkaya yang berasal dari tanaman sawit sebagai senyawa yang sama dengan retinol atau pro-vitamin A; sedangkan limbah pengolahan minyak sawit dihasilkan dari industri pengolahan minyak sawit yang berisi minyak dan karotene yang perlu diberi perlakuan terlebih dahulu sebelum dibuang. Karotenoid merupakan bahan penting yang diperlukan pada hewan dan manusia guna memperkuat tanggapan terhadap kekebalan, konversi ke vitamin A dan penangkapan gugus oksigen radikal. Dengan berkembangnya ketertarikan dalam mencari beta-karotene yang bersumber dari alam lain dan meningkatnya kesadaran untuk mencegah adanya pencemaran lingkungan, maka mendorong suatu industri untuk menggunakan CPO dan POME sebagai bahan baku untuk diekstrak karotenoidnya. Berbagai macam teknologi guna mengekstrak dan memisahkan karotenoid telah dikembangkan untuk mendapatkan kembali karotenoidnya. Makalah ini melaporkan dan membahas berbagai jenis teknologi yang telah dikembangkan guna mendapatkan kembali senyawa karotenoid dari kerusakan di dalam proses pemurnian minyak sawit secara komersial dan pengaruh beberapa perlakuan terhadap ekstrasi dan pemisahan karotenoid dari minyak sawit dan konsentrasi karotenoidnya. Pada prinsipnya, berbagai teknologi yang digunakan untuk mengekstrak dan memisahkan karotenoid terdapat perbedaan, dan terdapat salah satu teknologi yang digunakan untuk esktrasi dan pemisahan karotenoid adalah menggunakan bahan pelarut. Pelarut yang digunakan mempunyai peranan yang penting dalam teknologi ekstrasi; namun pelarut yang digunakan untuk mengekstrak tersebut mempunyai persoalan karena berpotensi mengganggu kesehatan dan membahayakan cemaran lingkungan. Oleh karena itu, pemilihan jenis teknologi yang aman, ramah terhadap lingkungan dan biaya yang efektif untuk penggunaan pelarut merupakan hal penting sebelum dilakukan desain metode/teknologi alternatif untuk esktrasi karotenoid. Pola produk molekuler kimia merupakan salah satu metode yang saat ini menjadi lebih populer untuk mencari pelarut dengan sifat-sifat yang dikehendaki sebelum diujicobakan.


Kata kunci :    karotenoid, ekstrasi, pemisahan, teknologi, minyak sawit kasar, limbah industri pengolahan sawit.


carotenoids, extraction, separation, technology, crude palm oil, palm oil mill effluent

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26578/jrti.v9i1.1707

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