Produksi bio-oil dan bio-arang dari mata kayu industri pulp melalui pirolisis [Production of bio-oil and bio-char from knot in pulp mill through pyrolysis]

Syamsudin Syamsudin


Acacia mangium knotis one of the biomass reject produced from the wood chemical pulping processes. This raw material is suitable for the production of bio-oil and bio-char in competitive costs. Utilization of the knot for the production of bio-oil and bio-char makes pulp mill as a bio-refining system with many profitable products because of increased income from bio-oil and bio-char and reduced costs for solid waste disposal. This study aims to evaluate the pyrolysis of knots from the kraft pulp mill to produce bio-oil and bio-char. Pyrolysis experiments of Acacia mangium knotwere carried out using laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactors at 400oC for 30 minutes. Acacia mangium knot contains volatile matterof 69.90% (dried basis) with a calorific value of 4279 kcal/kg (dried basis) has potency to produce bio-oil through the pyrolysis process. The TG-DTG analysis with heating rate of 10oC/min showed the pyrolysis reaction at temperature of 200oC-750oC resulting in a mass decreasing from 90% to 30% or around 85% of total conversion. The yield of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis was about 47%. Bio-oil contains high various organic compounds and dominated by acetic acid (21%) and 2-propanone (28%), and produced bio-char with a calorific value of 5763 kcal/kg (dried basis). Bio-char products could be used as a solid fuel in the combustion process or gasification process.


knot; pulp mill; pyrolysis; bio-oil

Full Text:



Aho, A., Kumar, N., Eranen, K., Holmbom, B., Hupa, M., Salmi, T., & Murzin, D. Y. (2008). Pyrolysis of softwood carbohydrates in a fluidized bed reactor. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 9(9), 1665–1675.

Akhtar, J., & Saidina Amin, N. (2012). A review on operating parameters for optimum liquid oil yield in biomass pyrolysis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(7), 5101–5109.

Alvarez, J., Lopez, G., Amutio, M., Artetxe, M., Barbarias, I., Arregi, A., … Olazar, M. (2016). Characterization of the bio-oil obtained by fast pyrolysis of sewage sludge in a conical spouted bed reactor. Fuel Processing Technology, 149, 169–175.

Alvarez, J., Lopez, G., Amutio, M., Bilbao, J., & Olazar, M. (2014). Bio-oil production from rice husk fast pyrolysis in a conical spouted bed reactor. Fuel, 128, 162–169.

Butler, E., Devlin, G., Meier, D., & McDonnell, K. (2011). A review of recent laboratory research and commercial developments in fast pyrolysis and upgrading. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(8), 4171–4186.

Dall’Ora, M., Jensen, P. A., & Jensen, A. D. (2008). Suspension Combustion of Wood: Influence of Pyrolysis Conditions on Char Yield, Morphology, and Reactivity. Energy & Fuels, 22(5), 2955–2962.

Fu, P., Hu, S., Sun, L., Xiang, J., Yang, T., Zhang, A., & Zhang, J. (2009). Structural evolution of maize stalk/char particles during pyrolysis. Bioresource Technology, 100(20), 4877–4883.

Gavrilescu, D. (2008). Energy from biomass in pulp and paper mills. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal. Retrieved from

Gonçalves, G. da C., Pereira, N. C., & Veit, M. T. (2016). Production of bio-oil and activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse and molasses. Biomass and Bioenergy, 85, 178–186.

Jahirul, M., Rasul, M., Chowdhury, A., & Ashwath, N. (2012). Biofuels Production through Biomass Pyrolysis —A Technological Review. Energies, 5(12), 4952–5001.

Kaewluan, S., & Pipatmanomai, S. (2011). Potential of synthesis gas production from rubber wood chip gasification in a bubbling fluidised bed gasifier. Energy Conversion and Management, 52(1), 75–84.

Lee, Y., Park, J., Ryu, C., Gang, K. S., Yang, W., Park, Y.-K., … Hyun, S. (2013). Comparison of biochar properties from biomass residues produced by slow pyrolysis at 500 °C. Bioresource Technology, 148, 196–201.

Ly, H. V., Kim, S.-S., Woo, H. C., Choi, J. H., Suh, D. J., & Kim, J. (2015). Fast pyrolysis of macroalga Saccharina japonica in a bubbling fluidized-bed reactor for bio-oil production. Energy, 93, 1436–1446.

Monte, M. C., Fuente, E., Blanco, A., & Negro, C. (2009). Waste management from pulp and paper production in the European Union. Waste Management, 29(1), 293–308.

Montoya, J. I., Valdés, C., Chejne, F., Gómez, C. A., Blanco, A., Marrugo, G., … Acero, J. (2015). Bio-oil production from Colombian bagasse by fast pyrolysis in a fluidized bed: An experimental study. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 112, 379–387.

Nor Roslam Wan Isahak, W., Hisham, M. W., Ambar Yarmo, M., & Yun Hin, T. (2012). A review on bio-oil production from biomass by using pyrolysis method.

Rogers, J. G., & Brammer, J. G. (2012). Estimation of the production cost of fast pyrolysis bio-oil. Biomass and Bioenergy, 36(0), 208–217.

Ronsse, F., van Hecke, S., Dickinson, D., & Prins, W. (2013). Production and characterization of slow pyrolysis biochar: influence of feedstock type and pyrolysis conditions. GCB Bioenergy, 5(2), 104–115.

Solikhah, M. D., Pratiwi, F. T., Heryana, Y., Wimada, A. R., Karuana, F., Raksodewanto, A., & Kismanto, A. (2018). Characterization of Bio-Oil from Fast Pyrolysis of Palm Frond and Empty Fruit Bunch. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 349, 012035.

Syamsudin. (2015). Tinjauan pemanfaatan sludge cake pabrik pulp kraft sebagai energi alternatif melalui proses gasifikasi. Jurnal Selulosa, 5(01).

Wang, S., Guo, X., Wang, K., & Luo, Z. (2011). Influence of the interaction of components on the pyrolysis behavior of biomass. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 91(1), 183–189.

Wang, Z., Qin, M., Zhu, J. Y., Tian, G., & Li, Z. (2013). Evaluation energy efficiency of bioconversion knot rejects to ethanol in comparison to other thermochemically pretreated biomass. Bioresource Technology, 130, 783–788.

Xiu, S., & Shahbazi, A. (2012). Bio-oil production and upgrading research: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(7), 4406–4414.

Yang, H., Yan, R., Chen, H., Lee, D. H., & Zheng, C. (2007). Characteristics of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin pyrolysis. Fuel, 86(12–13), 1781–1788.

Zhang, X., Tu, M., Paice, M., Sacciadis, G., Jiang, Z., Jemaa, N., & Thibault, A. (2010). Bioconversion of knot rejects from a sulphite pulp mill to ethanol. BioResources, 5(1), 23–42. plan (diakses tanggal 27 Desember 2018).



  • There are currently no refbacks.



Published by BARISTAND INDUSTRI BANJARBARU (E-ISSN: 2503-0779 dan P-ISSN : 2086-1400).

 Creative Commons License