Model Biaya Produksi Biodiesel Berbasis Minyak Sawit

Meilita Tryana Sembiring, Sukardi Sukardi, Ani Suryani, Muhammad Romli

Abstract


Biodiesel is a renewable energy source in Indonesia of which the use is regulated by the government in the form of mandatory policy of biodiesel and diesel fuel blending. The production of biodiesel in Indonesia is not developed (the need is 3.4 million kiloliters but the total national production is only 1,703 kiloliters). It is because the selling price (referring to Mean of Platts Singapore) is always lower than the production cost. Biodiesel production is influenced by raw materials and process technology, so it needs to be conducted biodiesel production modeling as a basis in determining the supporting policies of biodiesel selling price. The purpose of this study is to identify the raw materials, process technology, and modeling the production cost structure of palm oil-based biodiesel. Identification of raw materials was conducted by literature study and field survey to biodiesel producers. Identification of process technology was conducted by field survey and mass balance calculation using Grand Inizio technology to get the number of yield of each raw material. Then, production cost study was based on the specifications of raw materials and process technology with heuristic approach. Types and specifications of palm oil widely used by Indonesian producers are Crude Palm Oil (CPO) FFA<5%, Refined Palm Oil (RPO) FFA<5%, Refined Oil FFA<1%, Palm Fatty Acid Distillated (PFAD) FFA 90%. The technology process used was transesterification for FFA level <1% and esterification-transesterification for FFA level <5%. The resulting yield for 1000 kg of raw material is 1051.75 kg CPO, 975.94 kg RPO and PFAD, 973.81 kg Refined Oil with Grand Inizio technology approach. The production cost model represents the total production cost influenced by the costs of Inside Battery Limit, Outside Battery Limit, general cost and glycerol value-added.

ABSTRAK

Biodiesel adalah sumber energi terbarukan di Indonesia yang diatur penggunaannya oleh pemerintah dalam bentuk kebijakan mandatori pencampuran biodiesel dengan solar (biosolar). Produksi biodiesel di Indonesia tidak berkembang (kebutuhan 3.4 juta kiloliter namun total produksi nasional hanya 1.703 kiloliter). Hal tersebut disebabkan harga jual (mengacu Mean of Platts Singapore) yang selalu lebih rendah dibandingkan biaya pokok produksi. Produksi biodiesel dipengaruhi oleh bahan baku dan teknologi proses, sehingga perlu dilakukan pemodelan produksi biodiesel sebagai landasan dalam menentukan kebijakan pendukung harga jual biodiesel. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi bahan baku, teknologi proses, dan memodelkan struktur biaya produksi biodiesel berbasis minyak sawit. Identifikasi bahan baku dilakukan dengan studi literatur dan survei lapangan ke produsen biodiesel. Identifikasi teknologi proses dilakukan dengan survei lapangan dan perhitungan neraca massa dengan teknologi Grand Inizio untuk mendapatkan jumlah rendemen dari masing-masing bahan baku. Selanjutnya kajian biaya produksi dilakukan berdasarkan spesifikasi bahan baku dan teknologi proses dengan pendekatan heuristik. Jenis dan spesifikasi minyak sawit yang banyak digunakan produsen di Indonesia adalah Crude Palm Oil (CPO) ALB<5%, Refined Palm Oil (RPO) ALB<5%, Refined Oil ALB<1%, Palm Fatty Acid Distillated (PFAD) ALB 90%. Teknologi proses yang digunakan adalah transesterifikasi untuk kadar ALB<1% dan esterifikasi-transesterifikasi untuk kadar ALB<5%. Rendemen yang dihasilkan untuk 1000 kg bahan baku adalah CPO 1051.75 kg, RPO dan PFAD 975.94 kg, Refined Oil 973.81 kg dengan pendekatan teknologi Grand Inizio. Model biaya produksi merepresentasikan total biaya produksi yang dipengaruhi oleh biaya Inside Battery Limit, Outside Battery Limit, biaya umum dan nilai tambah gliserol.


Keywords


biodiesel; free fatty acid; modelling; palm oil; production cost

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahmad M, Khan MA, Zafar M, Sultana S. 2013. Practical Handbook on Biodiesel Production and Properties. Boca Raton (US): CRC Press.

Aprobi. 2014. Kemampuan penyediaan biodiesel dalam mendukung mandatori biodiesel dan masalahnya. [Seminar Nasional Kebijakan Mandatory Biodiesel] Bogor (ID): PASPI.

Bangun D. 2014. Important role of palm oil in food security: food and regulation. Disampaikan pada International Oil Palm Conference, 17-19 Juni 2014. Dewan Minyak Sawit Indonesia.

Berrios M, Skelton RL. 2008. Comparison of purification methods for biodiesel. Chemical Engineering Journal. 144: 459-465.

Carberry E. 2007. Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers. Colorado (US): McGraw Hill.

Chongkhong S, Tongurai C, Chetpattananondh P, Bunyakan C. 2009. Continuous esterification for biodiesel production from palm fatty acid distillate using economical process. Renewable Energy. 34 (4): 1059-1063.

[EAS] East African Standard. 2013. Draft East African Standard: Palm Olein Spesification [Internet]. [diunduh 2014

[ESDM] Kementerian Energi dan Sumberdaya Mineral. 2013. Informasi Teknis Biodiesel. Jakarta (ID): Kementerian Energi dan Sumberdaya Mineral.

Eriyatno. 1998. Ilmu Sistem: Meningkatkan Mutu dan Efektifitas Manajemen. Bogor (ID): IPB Press.

Elburg Global. 2009. Technical Spesifications of RBD Palm Oil [Internet]. [diunduh 2014 Nov 23]. Tersedia pada: http://www.elburg global.nl/vegetable-fats/palm-oil/.

Giannoccaro I. Pontrandolfo P. 2004. Supply chain coordination by revenue sharing contracts. International Journal of Production Economics. 89(2): 131-139.

Gunawan S, Kasim N S, Ju Y H. 2008. Separation and Purification of Squalene from Soybean Oil Deodorizer Distillate. Separation and Purification Technology. 60(2) : 128–135.

Haas MJ. 2006. Improving the economic of biodiesel production hrough the use of low value lipids as feedstocks: vegetable oil soapstock. Fuel Processing Technology. 86(10): 1087-1096.

Hayyan A, Mjalilli FS, Hashim MA, Hayyan M, Al-Nashet IM. 2013. Conversion of free fatty acid in low grade crude palm oil to methyl esters for biodiesel production using chromosulfuric acid. Bulgarian Chemical Communication. 45(3): 394–399.

Idoko O, Bwai MD, Emmanuel SA, Thomas SA. 2013. Effect of bleaching and degumming on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of palm oil. Engineering and Applied Scinces. 2(5) : 343-345.

Igor N, Susana L S, Marly C, Otávio L B, Márcio F, Marta A. 2011. Enzymatic biodiesel synthesis using a byproduct obtained from palm oil refining. Enzyme Research. 81(1): 8-23.

Ira Desri, Rahmi, Neswati. 2013. The influence of molar ratio of methanol to PFAD and esterification reaction time towards biodiesel characteristics palm fatty acids distillate produced. Journal Advance Science Engineering Information Technology. 3(5): 9-13. ISSN: 2088-5334.

Ivanoui A, SchMeant A, Peter F, Rusnac LM, Ungurean M. 2011. Comparative study on biodiesel synthesis from different vegetables oils. Chemical Bull POLITECHNICAL. 56(70): 94-98.

Ivanoui A, SchMeant A, Peter F, Rusnac LM, Ungurean M. 2011. Comparative study on biodiesel synthesis from different vegetables oils. Chemical Bull POLITECHNICAL. 56(70): 94-98.

Jackson MC. 2003. System Thinking: Creative Holism for Managers. England (GB) : Jhon Wiley & Sons. Inc.

Kumar, Sameer dan Zander Matthew. 2007. Supply Chain Cost Control Using Acitivity Based Management. France; Auerbach Publication

Lee K T, Ofori-Boateng C. 2013. Sustainability of Biofuel Production from Oil Palm Biomass. Singapore (SG): Springer Science and Media Bussiness.

Marchetti MJ, Miguel VU, Errazu AF. 2008. Heterogeneous esterification of oil with high amount of free fatty acid. Fuel. 86(1): 906-910.

Mahlia TMI, Ong HC, Masjuki HH. 2012. Techno economics analysis of biodiesel production from palm. Jatropha curcas. and Calophyllum inophyllum as biofuel. The Proceedings of 2 nd Annual International Conference Syiah Kuala University 2012 and 8th IMT-GT Uninet Biosciences Conference. Banda Aceh (ID).

Meher LC, Vidya SD, Naik SN. 2006. Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transesterification a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 10(3): 248–268.

Melero JA, Bautista LF, Iglesias J, Morales, Vazquez RS. 2014. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil in a continuous packed bed reactor with an agglomerated Zr-SBA-15/bentonite catalyst. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental. 145(10): 197-204.

Moh MH, Yusof M, Ooi TL, Tang TS. 1999. Unpublished Report. In: Ping BTY, Yusof M. 2009. Characteristics and properties of fatty acid distillates. Oil Palm Buletin. 59(11): 5-11.

Morad NA, Madya M, Mohd R. 2006. Process Design in Degumming and Bleaching of Palm Oil. Malaysia (MY):Centre of Lipids Engineering and Applied Scince University of Technology

Nagi J, Ahmed SK, Nagi F. 2008. Palm biodiesel an alternative green renewable energy for the energy demands of the future. ICCBT. 6(7): 79-94.

Oil World. 2014. Statistic for 17 Oil and Fats. Oil World Database Dec 2012. Oil World. Germany (DE): Oil World.

Paryanto I, Kismanto A, Amri K, Solikhah MS. 2013. Some technical aspects for sustainable biodiesel production. International Jurnal on Advanced Science Engineering Information Technology. 4(2): 49-52.

Paudel KP, Lohr L, Martin Jr NR. 1998. Optimal input cost sharing for tenants: implication for negotiating efficiency. Agricultural System. 57(1): 1-11.

Purnomo H. 2004. Pengantar Teknik Industri.Yogyakarta (ID): Graha Ilmu.

Rahayu SK. 2009. Perpajakan Indonesia: Konsep dan

Aspek Finansial. Yogyakarta (ID): Graha Ilmu.

Syafri HS. 2010. Teori Akutansi. Jakarta (ID): Raja Grafindo Persada.

Taufiq-Yap YH, Abdullah NF, Basri M. 2011. Biodiesel Production via Transesterification of Palm Oil Using NaOH/Al2O3 Catalists. Sains Malaysiana. 40(6): 587-594.

Towler G, Sinnott R. 2008. Chemical Engineering Design. Paris (IT): Elsevier.

Verhe R, Echim C, Greyt WD, Stevens C.2011. Production of biodiesel via chemical catalytic conversion. In Handbook of Biofuels Production: Process and Technologies. Rafael J,

Campelo J, Clark J Eds. 2011. Cambrige (UK): Woodhead Publishing.

Viswanath PV. 2000. Diversification and moral hazard in Roman Palestine evidence from agricultural contract law. International Review of Law and Economics. 20(3): 353-369.

Wasson CS. 2006. System Analysis. Design. and Development Concepts. Principles and Practices. New Jersey (US): Jhon Willey & Sons. Inc.

[WFP] World Food Programme. 2011. Technical Specifications for the manufacture of palm olein. [Internet]. [diunduh 2014 Des 6]. Tersedia pada: http://documents.wfp.org.

Winarno FG. 2008. Kimia Pangan dan Gizi. Bogor: M-Brio.

Yang W. 2011. A multi-objective optimization approach to allocate Environment flows to the artifisially restored wetland of China’s Yellow River Delta. Ecological Modelling. 222 (0): 261-267.Des 6]. Tersedia pada: http://www. tbs.go.tz




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24960/jli.v5i1.663.23-36

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2015 Meilita tryana sembiring, Sukardi, Ani Suryani, Muhammad Romli


Our journal indexed by:




Copyright © Baristand Industri Padang, 2015. Powered By OJS

Theme design credited to MEV edited by JLI

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License