Studi Eksperimental dan Pemodelan Matematika Proses Pengeringan Kakao Dengan Energi Surya Secara Intermitten

Haznam Putra, Farrel H Napitupulu, Himsar Ambarita, Sari Farah Dina

Abstract


In this research, the behaviors of cocoa drying using solar dryers have been studied. Cocoa was taken from plantation area around North Sumatra - Indonesia. Solar energy is used as a source of energy that save and clean for drying. Cocoa is a mainstay in Indonesian commodities, but quality of the current generated is relatively low. The aims of this research to gain the quality with mathematical modelling of drying by producing a good quality of cocoa. Preparation phase started from cocoa fermentation process. With some testing times, it was taken one test where the results of fermented cocoa that had been washed and dried from water content 55.83% to 7.01%, which lasted for three days, 22 to 24 April 2013 from at 7:00 to 17:00 pm (intermittent). The study was conducted at the Solar Energy Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering of North Sumatra University Medan. It is located in Medan city with the position of 3.36 ° N - 98.4 ° E, altitude 200 meters above sea level and meridian time (GMT +7). From the experimental results obtained an experimental equation mathematical model for intermittent drying of cocoa, with the value of diffusivity coefficient was between 1.39 x10-10 to 1.85 x10-10 m2/sec, besides the quality of the dried cocoa in this study was better in colour and not moldy than dried cacao directly under the sun.

 

ABSTRAK

Pada penelitian ini, perilaku pengeringan menggunakan pengering kakao tenaga surya telah dilakukan. Kakao diambil dari perkebunan di sekitar daerah Sumatera Utara – Indonesia. Energi surya digunakan sebagai sumber energi pengeringan yang hemat dan bersih. Kakao merupakan komoditi andalan di Indonesia hanya saja mutu yang saat ini dihasilkan masih terbilang rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan persamaan pengeringan dengan pemodelan matematika untuk menghasilkan mutu kakao yang baik. Tahap preparasi dimulai dari proses fermentasi kakao. Dengan beberapa kali pengujian kakao, diambil hasil salah satu pengujian dimana hasil fermentasi kakao yang telah dicuci kemudian dikeringkan dari kadar air 55,83% menjadi 7,01% yang berlangsung selama tiga hari yakni 22–24 April 2013 dari pukul 07.00 – 17.00 WIB (Intermitten).  Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Solar Energi Jurusan Teknik Mesin Fakultas Teknik Universitas Sumatera Utara Medan yang berada di kota Medan dengan posisi 3.36 °LU – 98.4 °BT, ketinggian di atas permukaan laut 200 meter dan waktu meridian (7 + GMT). Dari hasil percobaan percobaan didapat persamaan model matematika untuk pengeringan kakao secara intermitten, dengan nilai koefisien difusifitas berada pada nilai 1,39 x10-10 – 1,85 x10-10 m2/detik, selain itu kualitas kakao yang dikeringkan lebih baik dari segi warna dan tidak berjamur dibandingkan dengan kakao yang dikeringkan secara langsung dibawah sinar matahari.


Keywords


Cocoa drying; solar energy; diffusivity coefficient; intermittent

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anonim, 2009. Profil singkat komoditi kakao.http://regionalinvestment.com/sipid/id/userfiles/komoditi/3/kakao_profilsingkat.pdf. Tanggal akses 15 Februari 2009.

Anonima. 2009. Dengan fermentasi untung petani kakao meningkat. http://www.sinartani.com/olahanpasar/dengan-fermentasi-untung-petani-kakao-meningkat-1259555516.htm. Tanggal akses 14 Desember 2009.

Athul Sharma, Chen C.R., Nguyen Vu Lan. 2009. Solar-energy drying systems: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, (13): 1185 – 1210.

Clement A. D., Assidjo N. E., Kouame P., Yao K.B. 2009. Mathematical modelling of sun drying kinetics of thin layer cocoa (theobroma cacao) beans. Journal of applied sciences research, 5 (9): 1110 – 1116.

Dina S.F, Farel H. Napitupulu, Himsar Ambarita. 2013. Kajian berbagai metode pengeringan untuk peningkatan mutu kakao Indonesia. Jurnal riset industri, Badan pengkajian kebijakan iklim dan mutu industri kementrian perindustrian. Vol 7 no. 3

Doymaz, I. 2005. Sun drying of figs: an experimental study. Journal of food

engineering 71, 403–407.

Fagunwa A.O., Koya O.A. and Faborode M.O. 2009. Development of an intermittent solar dryer for cocoa beans. Agricultural engineering international: the CIGR Ejournal. Manuscript number 1292, vol XI, July, 2009.

Hii C.L., Law C.L., Cloke M. 2009a. Modelling using a new thin layer drying model and product quality of cocoa. Journal of food engineering, (90): 191 – 198.

Hii C.L., Law C.L., Cloke M., Suzannah S. 2009b. Thin layer drying kinetics of cocoa and dried product quality. Biosystem engineering (102): 153 – 161.

Hii C.L., Law C.L., Cloke M. 2009c. Determination of effective diffusivity of cocoa beans using variable diffusivity model. Journal of applied sciences, 9 (17): 3116 – 3120.

Karathanos, V.T. 1999. Determination of water content of dried fruits by drying kinetics. Journal of Food Engineering, (39): 337-344.

Jangam, S.V. and Mujumdar, A.S. 2010. Basic Concepts and Defenitions, in Drying of Foods, Vegetables, and Fruits, Published in Singapore, pp. 1-3.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24960/jli.v4i1.644.49-57

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2014 haznam putra, Farrel H Napitupulu, Himsar Ambarita, Sari Farah Dina


Our journal indexed by:




Copyright © Baristand Industri Padang, 2015. Powered By OJS

Theme design credited to MEV edited by JLI

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License