Pengaruh Penambahan Dekstrin dan Albumen Telur (Putih Telur) Terhadap Mutu Tepung Pisang Matang

Riyanti Ekafitri, Diki Danang Surahman, Nok Afifah

Abstract


Ripe banana flour has disadvantage such as poor physical properties. This research aims to determine whether adding the dextrin and albumen (egg white) can improve the physical properties, nutritional values, and acceptance of ripe banana flour. The research design used completely randomized design with 3 treatments namely ripe banana flour control, with the addition of dextrin and the addition of albumen (egg white) foam. Analysis of the product was chemical analysis (moisture, fat, protein, ash and carbohydrate, pH, and TSS), physical properties (yield, whiteness, water holding capacity), and sensory analysis. The results showed that the addition of albumen (egg white) foam increased protein (10.40%) and ash content (2.97%), as well as increased the pH value (4.97), and the WHC at temperature 40oC (0.85) and at temperature of 80°C (1.81). The addition of dextrin increased the carbohydrate content (87.07%) and TSS (6.37o brix). Ripe banana flour without addition dextrin and albumen (egg white) produced banana flour with the highest water and fat content of  9.08% and 0.34%, and the highest yield, whiteness, and highest score of sensory acceptance: 18.42%; 26,24%; and 4,93. The addition of dextrin and egg white foam increased nutritional values such as protein, ash, and fat content of ripe banana flour, and also the pH value, TPT, and WHC, but did not improve yield and whiteness as well as sensory acceptance of ripe banana flour.

ABSTRAK

Pengembangan mesin pengurai serat tandan kosong kelapa sawit dilakukan untuk menghasilkan serat mekanis sebagai penguat papan partikel. Didalam penelitian ini dilakukan perancangan mesin, pembuatan mesin dan evaluasi teknis kinerja mesin. Evaluasi teknis dilakukan pada putaran 600 rpm dan 900 rpm dengan masing-masing putaran 2 kali penguraian, dan masing-masing penguraian 3 ulangan. Dari hasil rancangan mesin didapatkan kapasitas mesin ± 200 kg/jam dan daya penggerak  5 HP. Hasil evaluasi teknis kinerja mesin didapatkan persentase serat dan serat campuran pada putaran 900 rpm pada pengujian 1 dan 2 tidak berbeda jauh dengan pengujian pada putaran 600 rpm. Dari 10 kg TKKS cacahan masing-masing putaran, didapatkan rata-rata serat bersih  82%, serat campuran 14%, dan 4% menjadi debu. Dari hasil penguraian pada putaran 600 rpm dan 900 rpm didapatkan 5 macam komposisi tingkatan serat yaitu, a) serat bersih 600 rpm, b) serat bersih 900 rpm, c) serat campuran (2-3 cm+kelopak), d) serat campuran (<2 cm + kelopak), e) serat campuran (serat halus + serbuk). Hasil analisis kimia ke lima serat tersebut yaitu,  rata-rata kadar air serat 9,3%, kadar ekstraktif 5,6%, kadar lemak 1,4%, kadar lignin 33,1%, kadar holoselulosa 58,33%, dan selulosa 39,2%. Dibandingkan dengan serat kayu daun jarum dan kayu meranti merah, kandungan kimia serat tersebut hampir sama atau tidak berbeda jauh.


Keywords


Banana; flour; dextrin; egg white; quality

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abbas, F.M.A, Saifullah, R, dan Azhar, M.E. 2009. Assessment of physical properties of ripe banana flour prepared from two varieties: Cavendish and Dream banana. International Food Research Journal16: 183-189

Abbas, F.M.A., Saifullah, R., dan Azhar, M.E. 2011. Differentiation of ripe banana flour using mineral composition and logistic regression model. International Food Research Journal 16: 83-87.

Agustina, N., Imam, T., dan Djalal, R. 2014. Evaluasi sifat putih telur ayam pasteurisasi ditinjau dari pH, kadar air, sifat emulsi dan daya kembang Angel Cake. Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan 23 (2): 6 – 13

Ansori, M. 2009. Menentuka Titik optimal koagulasi santan dengan pendekatan filtrasi. Jurnal Kompetensi Teknik 1 (1) : 9-14.

Anyasi, T. A., Afam, I.O.J, dan Godwin, R.A.M. 2015. Effect of organic acid pretreatment on some physical, functional and antioxidant properties of flour obtained from three unripe banana cultivars. Jurnal of Food Chemistry 172: 515–522

Bugaud, C., Chillet, M., Beaute´, M.P., dan Ce´cile, s. 2006. Physicochemical analysis of mountain bananas from the French West Indies. Journal of Scientia Horticulturae 108 : 167-172.

Balasubramanian, S., Paridhi, G., Bosco, J.D., dan Kadam, D.M. 2012. Optimization of process conditions for the development of tomato foam by box-behnken design. Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences 3 : 925-930.

Belitz, H. D., Grosch, W., dan Schieberle, P. 2009. Food chemistry (4th ed.). Berlin: Springer-Verlag (Chapter 5).

Daramola, B., dan Osanyinlusi, S. A. 2006. Production, Characterization, and application of banana (Musa spp) flour in whole maize. African Journal of Biotechnology. 5 (10) : 992-995

Direktorat Gizi Departemen Kesehatan RI. 1996. Daftar Komposisi Bahan Makanan. Bhatara Karya Aksara. Jakarta

Egbebi, A.O. dan Bademosi, T.A. 2011. Chemical compositions of ripe and unripe banana and plaintain. International Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1 : 1-5.

Facundo, H.V. de .V., Deborah, S.G., Beatriz, R.C., dan Franco, M,L. 2013. Isolation of volatiles compounds in banana by HS-SPME: Optimization for the Whole Fruit and Pulp. International Journal of Bioscience, Biochemistry and Bioinformatics 3 (2) : 110-115.

Gonnissen, Y., Remon, J.P. dan Vervaet, C. 2008. Effect of maltodextrin and super disintegrant in directly compressible powder mixtures prepared via co-spray drying. European Journal of Pharmatice and Biopharmaceutics. 68 (13):277-282

Juarez-Garcia, E., Agama-Acevedo, E., Sayago-Ayerdi, S.G., Rodriguez-Ambriz, S.L. and Bello-Perez, L.A. 2006. Composition, digestibility and application in breadmaking of banana flour. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 61: 131-137

Jing, H., Yap, M., Wong, P.Y.Y., dan Kits, D.D. 2009. Comparison of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of egg-white proteins and fructose and inulin Maillard reaction products. Food Bioprocess Techology Journal, 11: 269-279.

Jordan, M.J., Kawaljid, T., Philip, E. S., dan Kevin, L. G. 2001.Aromatic profile of aqueous banana essence and banana fruit by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 4813-4817

Mohapatra, D., Sabuasachi, M., dan Namrata, S. 2010. Banana and its by-product : overview. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 69 : 323-329.

Nakai, S., dan Modler, H.W. 1996. Food Proteins Properties and Characterization. Willey,VC. USA.

Palupi HT. 2012. Pengaruh jenis pisang dan bahan perendam terhadap karakteristik tepung pisang (Musa Spp). Jurnal Teknologi Pangan 4 (1): 104-120.

Raghavan, G.S.V. dan Orsat, V. 2007. Recent advances in drying ofbiomaterials for superior quality bioproducts. Journal of Chemical Engineering 2: 20–29

Rajkumar. P., Kailappan, R., Vishwanathan, R., dan Raghavan, G. S. V. 2007. Drying Characteristics of Foamed Alphonso Mango Pulp in a Continuous Type Foam Mat Drier. Journal of Food Engineering 79 (4) : 1452- 1459.

Regiane, V. De. B.F., Fabiana, Q., Diego, A.B, Vitangela, V.R., Carla, F. De. L., Vivian, R. De. S. 2013. Foam mat drying of tomato pulp. Bioscience Journal Uberlândia 29 (4):816-825

Rodrı´guez-Ambriz, S.L., Islas-Herna´ndez, J.J., Agama- Acevedo, E., Tovar, J. and Bello-Pe´rez, L.A. 2008. Characterization of a fiber-rich powder prepared by liquefaction of unripe banana flour. Food Chemistry Journal 107: 1515–1521

Sharada, S. 2013. Studies on effect of various operating parameters & foaming agents- Drying of fruits and vegetables. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research 3 : 1512-1519.

Suntharalingam, S., dan Ravindran, G. 1993. Physical and Biochemichal Properties of Green Banana Flour. Journal Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 43 : 19-27.

Vatanasuchart, N., Boonma, N., dan Karuna, W. 2012. Resistant starch content, in vitro starch digestibility and physico-chemical properties of flour and starch from Thai bananas. Maejo International Journal Science and Technology 6 (2) : 259-271.

Vilas-Boas, da. K., dan Adel, A.K. 2006. Effect of Atmospheric modification, I-MCP and chemicals on quality of fresh cut banana. Journal Of Post Harvest Biology And Technology 39: 155- 162.

Warsiki, E., Hambali E., Suharmani, dan Nasution, M.Z. 1995. Pengaruh jenis dan konsentrasi bahan pengisi terhadap rancangan produksi tepung instan sari buah nanas. Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian 5 (3) :172-178.

Winarno, F.G. 2012. Kimia Pangan. PT. Gramedia Putaka Utama, Jakarta

Zhang, P., Whistler, R.L., BeMiller, J.N., dan Hamaker, B.R. 2005. Banana starch: production, physical properties and digestibility – a review. Journal of Carbohydrate Polymers 59: 443-458.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24960/jli.v6i1.1062.13-24

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 Riyanti Ekafitri, Diki Danang Surahman, Nok Afifah


Our journal indexed by:




Copyright © Baristand Industri Padang, 2015. Powered By OJS

Theme design credited to MEV edited by JLI

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License