Biodegradability of Cassava Edible Bioplastics in Landfill Soil and Plantation Soil

Isroi Isroi, Guntarti Supeni, Deden D. Eris, Agustina A. Cahyaningtyas


Biodegrability of edible bioplastic made from cassava starch was evaluated by using landfill soil and plantation soil as natural inoculum. The edible bioplastics used in this study were bioplastic without and with addition of hydrophobic liquid. Biodegradation test of the bioplastic compared with conventional plastic samples were conducted in the glass jar for 60 days. The carbon dioxide generated from the biodegradation process absorbed by 0.1 N sodium hydroxide solutions. The carbon dioxide was titrated with 0.1 N HCl, using phenolphthalein and then followed by methyl orange as indicator. There was no carbon dioxide released from the conventional plastic during the test. Biodegradation of the bioplastic in plantation soil was higher than in landfill soil. Biodegradation rate of the bioplastic in landfill soil were 0.201 mg CO2/day and 0.249 mg CO2/day for bioplastic without and with hydrophobic liquid, respectively. Biodegradation rate of the bioplastic in plantation soil were 0.604 mg CO2/day and 0.424 mg CO2/day for bioplastic without and with hydrophobic liquid, respectively. Complete biodegradation of the bioplastic in landfill soil predicted in 431 days and 366 days, respectively. In other hand, complete biodegradation of the bioplastic in plantation soil predicted in 151 days and 201 days, respectively. Microbes population in the soil could be affected the biodegradation rate of the bioplastics.


Biodegradibily; Edible bioplastic; Starch; Cassava; Natural inoculum

Full Text:



Acosta, Sandra, Alberto Jiménez, Maite Cháfer, Chelo González-Martínez, and Amparo Chiralt. 2015. “Physical Properties and Stability of Starch-Gelatin Based Films as Affected by the Addition of Esters of Fatty Acids.” Food Hydrocolloids 49. Elsevier Ltd: 135–43. doi:10.1016/j.foodhyd.2015.03.015.

Adhikari, Dinesh, Masaki Mukai, Kenzo Kubota, Takamitsu Kai, Nobuyuki Kaneko, Kiwako S Araki, and Motoki Kubo. 2016. “Degradation of Bioplastics in Soil and Their Degradation Effects on Environmental Microorganisms.” Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment 5 (1). Scientific Research Publishing: 23.

Anastasi, A., G. C. Varese, and V. Filipello Marchisio. 2005. “Isolation and Identification of Fungal Communities in Compost and Vermicompost.” Mycologia 97 (1): 33–44. doi:10.3852/mycologia.97.1.33.

ASTM. 1990. “ASTM G21-90: Stanard Practice for Determining Resistence of Synthetic Polymeric Materials to Fungi.” American Society for Testing Materials.

Bersaneti, Gabrielly Terassi, Janaina Mantovan, Agnes Magri, Suzana Mali, and Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone Celligoi. 2016. “Edible Films Based on Cassava Starch and Fructooligosaccharides Produced by Bacillus Subtilis Natto CCT 7712.” Carbohydrate Polymers 151. Elsevier: 1132–38.

BPS. 2017. “Produksi Ubi Kayu Menurut Propinsi (Ton), 1993-2015.” Badan Pusat Statistik.

Briassoulis, Demetres, and Francesco Degli Innocenti. 2017. “Standards for Soil Biodegradable Plastics.” In Soil Degradable Bioplastics for a Sustainable Modern Agriculture, 139–68. Springer.

Castro-Aguirre, E., R. Auras, S. Selke, M. Rubino, and T. Marsh. 2017. “Insights on the Aerobic Biodegradation of Polymers by Analysis of Evolved Carbon Dioxide in Simulated Composting Conditions.” Polymer Degradation and Stability 137. Elsevier Ltd: 251–71. doi:10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2017.01.017.

Emadian, S Mehdi, Turgut T Onay, and Burak Demirel. 2017. “Biodegradation of Bioplastics in Natural Environments.” Waste Management 59. Elsevier: 526–36.

Fakhoury, Farayde Matta, Silvia Maria Martelli, Larissa Canhadas Bertan, Fabio Yamashita, Lúcia Helena Innocentini Mei, and Fernanda Paula Collares Queiroz. 2012. “Edible Films Made from Blends of Manioc Starch and Gelatin - Influence of Different Types of Plasticizer and Different Levels of Macromolecules on Their Properties.” LWT - Food Science and Technology 49 (1). Elsevier Ltd: 149–54. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2012.04.017.

FAO. 2017. “Crops Production.” FAOSTAT.

Guerrero, P, Z A Nur Hanani, J P Kerry, and K la Caba. 2011. “Characterization of Soy Protein-Based Films Prepared with Acids and Oils by Compression.” Journal of Food Engineering 107 (1). Elsevier: 41–49.

Guilbert, Stéphane, and Nathalie Gontard. 2005. “Agro-Polymers for Edible and Biodegradable Films. Review of Agricultural Polymeric Materials, Physical and Mechanical Characteristics.” Innovations in Food Packaging, 263–76. doi:10.1016/B978-012311632-1/50048-6.

Jaramillo, Carolina Medina, Tomy J Gutiérrez, Silvia Goyanes, Celina Bernal, and Luc’ia Famá. 2016. “Biodegradability and Plasticizing Effect of Yerba Mate Extract on Cassava Starch Edible Films.” Carbohydrate Polymers 151. Elsevier: 150–59.

Kester, J J, and O Fennema. 1989. “An Edible Film of Lipids and Cellulose Ethers: Performance in a Model Frozen-Food System.” Journal of Food Science 54 (6). Wiley Online Library: 1390–92.

Khaswar, Syamsu, Krisnani Setyowati, and Arban A. Khoiri. 2008. “The Effect of Plastisizer Additions (Polyethylene Glycol 400 and Dimethyl Phtalate) on the Biodegradation Process of Bioplastics Poly-B-Hydroxyalkanoat in Liquid Media with Limited Air.” Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian 4 (1): 4–14.

Kim, Sae Ron Byul, Yoon-Gyoung Choi, Jong-Yea Kim, and Seung-Taik Lim. 2015. “Improvement of Water Solubility and Humidity Stability of Tapioca Starch Film by Incorporating Various Gums.” LWT-Food Science and Technology 64 (1). Elsevier: 475–82.

Liu, Wei Wei, Juan Xue, Bei Jiu Cheng, Su Wen Zhu, Qing Ma, and Huan Ma. 2016. “Anaerobic Biodegradation, Physical and Structural Properties of Normal and High-Amylose Maize Starch Films.” International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering 9 (5): 184–93. doi:10.3965/j.ijabe.20160905.2005.

Lopattananon, N., C. Thongpin, and N. Sombatsompop. 2012. “Bioplastics from Blends of Cassava and Rice Flours: The Effect of Blend Composition.” International Polymer Processing 27 (3): 334–40.

Lucas, Nathalie, Christophe Bienaime, Christian Belloy, Mich??le Queneudec, Fran??oise Silvestre, and Jos?? Edmundo Nava-Saucedo. 2008. “Polymer Biodegradation: Mechanisms and Estimation Techniques - A Review.” Chemosphere 73 (4): 429–42. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.06.064.

Ma, Wen, Chuan He Tang, Shou Wei Yin, Xiao Quan Yang, Qin Wang, Fu Liu, and Zi Hao Wei. 2012. “Characterization of Gelatin-Based Edible Films Incorporated with Olive Oil.” Food Research International 49 (1). Elsevier Ltd: 572–79. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2012.07.037.

Matta, Farayde, Silvia Maria, Thiago Caon, José Ignacio, Lucia Helena, Innocentini Mei, Farayde Matta Fakhouri, et al. 2015. “Edible Films and Coatings Based on Starch/gelatin: Film Properties and Effect of Coatings on Quality of Refrigerated Red Crimson Grapes.” Postharvest Biology and Technology 109 (October): 57–64. doi:10.1016/j.postharvbio.2015.05.015.

McHugh, T H. 2000. “Protein-Lipid Interactions in Edible Films and Coatings.” Die Nahrung 44 (3): 148–51. doi:10.1002/1521-3803(20000501)44:3<148::AID-FOOD148>3.0.CO;2-P.

Morse, Margaret C, Qi Liao, Craig S Criddle, and Curtis W Frank. 2011. “Method for Anaerobic Biodegradation of Bioplastics.” Google Patents.

Piñeros-Hernandez, Danyxa, Carolina Medina-Jaramillo, Alex López-Córdoba, and Silvia Goyanes. 2017. “Edible Cassava Starch Films Carrying Rosemary Antioxidant Extracts for Potential Use as Active Food Packaging.” Food Hydrocolloids 63. Elsevier: 488–95.

Rodrigues, Delane C, Carlos Alberto Caceres, Hálisson L Ribeiro, Rosa F A de Abreu, Arcelina P Cunha, and Henriette M C Azeredo. 2014. “Influence of Cassava Starch and Carnauba Wax on Physical Properties of Cashew Tree Gum-Based Films.” Food Hydrocolloids 38. Elsevier: 147–51.

Song, Yihu, and Qiang Zheng. 2008. “Improved Tensile Strength of Glycerol-Plasticized Gluten Bioplastic Containing Hydrophobic Liquids.” Bioresource Technology 99 (16): 7665–71. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2008.01.075.

Tonukari, Nyerhovwo John. 2004. “Cassava and the Future of Starch.” Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 7 (1). SciELO Chile: 5–8.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments

Copyright (c) 2018 Isroi, Guntarti Supeni, Deden D. Eris, Agustina Arianita Cahyaningtyas

Jurnal Kimia dan Kemasan is indexed by:

    Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.