KONVERSI LIMBAH TANDAN KOSONG KELAPA SAWIT MENJADI GLUKOSA DENGAN PROSES HIDROTERMAL TANPA MELALUI PROSES PRETREATMENT - (Conversion of Waste Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunches into Glucose using Hydrothermal Process without Pretreatment)

Rakhman Sarwono, Arief Hariyanto, Rizka Puspitadewi, Hendris Hendarsyah Kurniawan, Sulaiman Fatah

Abstract


Palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) is a waste from palm oil industry and commonly used as compost for soil breeding. EFB could be hydrolized into glucose using hydrothermal process with hydrochloric acid as catalyst.  Eight gram of EFB in particle sizes (–30+40) mesh were hydrolyzed with HCl 10% 80 mL in a tube reactor. Reaction time were 2, 3 and 4 hours in temperature range 140-240oC. EFB decomposition did not increase despite of higher temperature while reaction time influenced the process significantly. EFB conversion was 47% in 4 hours and 240oC while in 3 hours resulted 34% same with 2 hours in 210oC. EFB decomposition did not influence glucose yield which was 23% in 2 hours  170oC, 24% in 3 hours 160oC and 6% in 4 hours 150oC. The optimum conditions of conversion were 2 and 3 hours with temperature range 150-170oC.

Keywords: conversion, EFB, glucose, hydrothermal, pretreatment

 

ABSTRAK

Limbah tandan kosong kelapa sawit (TKKS) merupakan hasil samping dari industri minyak sawit dan terdapat dalam jumlah banyak. Sampai saat ini belum termanfaatkan dengan baik, biasanya dipakai sebagai kompos untuk pemuliaan tanah perkebunan sawit. Persentase TKKS sebesar 23% dari tandan buah segar (TBS) dengan komponen utama berupa selulosa, hemi-selulosa dan lignin. TKKS bisa dihidrolisis menjadi gula atau glukosa dengan proses hidrotermal menggunakan katalis asam klorida. TKKS  seberat 8 g dengan ukuran partikel (–30+40) mesh dikonversi secara hidrotermal pada reaktor tabung dengan penambahan 80 ml HCl 10% sebagai katalis, waktu reaksi 2, 3 dan 4 jam, suhu reaksi dari 120–240oC. Proses peruraian TKKS tidak menunjukkan kenaikan yang berarti walaupun suhu reaksi semakin tinggi. Waktu reaksi memberi pengaruh yang lebih besar terhadap peruraian TKKS dimana peruraian paling tinggi sebesar 47% pada suhu 240oC dan waktu reaksi 4 jam. Pada waktu reaksi 3 jam dihasilkan peruraian TKKS paling tinggi sebesar 34%, sama dengan hasil pada waktu 2 jam dan suhu 210oC.  Glukosa yang dihasilkan tidak seiring dengan TKKS yang terurai. Pada waktu reaksi 2 jam dan suhu reaksi 170oC dihasilkan glukosa sebesar 23% sedangkan pada waktu reaksi 3 jam dengan suhu reaksi 160oC dihasilkan glukosa paling tinggi 24% dan pada waktu reaksi 4 jam dengan suhu 150oC dihasilkan glukosa sebesar 6%. Kondisi terbaik untuk mendapatkan jumlah glukosa paling banyak yaitu pada waktu reaksi antara 2 dan 3 jam dengan suhu antara 150 dan 170oC.

Kata kunci: glukosa, hidrotermal, konversi, pretreatment, TKKS


Keywords


conversion; EFB; glucose; hydrothermal; pretreatment

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.36974/jbi.v7i2.695

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