EVALUASI KERAGAMAN GENETIK SEMBILAN VARIETAS RAMBUTAN (Nephelium lappaceum) DENGAN MARKA RAPD - (Evaluation of Nine Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) Varieties Genetic Diversity Using RAPD Markers)

Yuliana Galih Dyan Anggraheni, Enung Sri Mulyaningsih

Abstract


High diversity of rambutan varieties is potensial to develop new improved rambutan varieties. Due to limitation of rambutan genetic diversity information, the usage of RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers becomes an efficient option. This research aimed to study the diversity of rambutan from the collection of LIPI germplasm garden genotypically. Nine rambutan varieties were analyzed using six RAPD markers which generated 45 bands. Polymorphism analysis showed variation between varieties 56,6% and PIC (Polymorphic Information Content) value 0,2-0,5. UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method Arithmetic) dendogram divided nine rambutan varieties in two groups with similarity index of 85-95%. First group was Si Nyonya varieties and the second group consist of Rapiah, Aceh Lebak, Unidentified, Binjai, Parakan, Si Macan, Aceh Pagar and Lebak Bulus varieties. The group differences allegedly related to the stickiness of the flesh to the seed. Aceh Lebak varieties has the closest genetic relationship to unidentified varieties of 95%.

Keywords: genetic diversity, molecular marker, phylogenetic tree, PIC value, rambutan


ABSTRAK

Tingginya keragaman varietas rambutan menjadi salah satu potensi untuk mengembangkan varietas unggul baru. Akan tetapi, ketersediaan informasi keragaman genetik rambutan masih terbatas. Penggunaan teknik marka RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) menjadi pilihan untuk analisis keragaman genetik tanaman karena cepat, mudah dan efisien. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari keragaman rambutan koleksi KPN (Kebun Plasma Nutfah) LIPI secara genotipik. Sembilan varietas rambutan digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Hasil analisis dengan menggunakan enam marka RAPD menghasilkan total pita 45. Hasil analisis polimorfisme menunjukkan keragaman antar varietas sebesar 56,6% dan nilai PIC (Polymorphic Information Content) sebesar 0,2-0,5. Dendogram UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Methode Arithmetic) membagi sembilan varietas rambutan dalam dua kelompok dengan indeks kesamaan sebesar 85-95%. Kelompok satu merupakan jenis varietas Si Nyonya sedangkan kelompok kedua terdiri dari varietas Rapiah, Aceh Lebak, Unidentified, Binjai, Parakan, Si Macan, Aceh Pagar dan Lebak Bulus. Perbedaan kelompok ini diduga berkaitan dengan sifat kelekatan daging buah terhadap biji. Varietas Aceh Lebak memiliki kekerabatan paling dekat dengan varietas unidentified sebesar 95%.

Kata kunci: keragaman genetik, nilai PIC, penanda molekuler, pohon filogenetik, rambutan


Keywords


genetic diversity; molecular marker; phylogenetic tree; PIC value; rambutan

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.36974/jbi.v9i1.3627

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