KARAKTERISTIK KIMIA, MIKROBIOLOGI, DAN SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK MILK CHOCOLATE ANALOG DARI BIJI KAKAO TANPA FERMENTASI (UNFERMENTED) DENGAN PENAMBAHAN CRUDE STEARIN DAN POLIFENOL

Rosniati Kasim, Kalsum Kalsum, Jamilah Jamilah, khaerunnisa khaerunnisa

Abstract


 

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik kimia, mikrobiologi, dan sifat organoleptik milk chocolate yang dibuat dari biji kakao tanpa fermentasi dengan penambahan crude stearin dan polifenol. Penelitian ini terdiri dari 8 perlakuan yaitu CA0T (CBS 25%), CA0P (CBS 25% dan polifenol 0,2%), CA1T (crude stearin 2,5% dan CBS 22,5%), CA1P (crude stearin 2,5%, CBS 22,5%, dan polifenol 0,2%), CA2T (crude stearin 5% dan CBS 20%), CA2P (crude stearin 5%, CBS 20%, dan polifenol 0,2%), CA3T (crude stearin 10% dan CBS 15%), dan CA3P (crude stearin 10%, CBS 15%, dan polifenol 0,2%). Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimen dan analisis data secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan CA2P menghasilkan produk milk chocolate yang terbaik di antara semua perlakuan lainnya dengan karakteristik kadar air 6,8%, polifenol 0,305%, asam lemak bebas, 1,26%, angka lempeng total 0,31x102 koloni/g, sedangkan hasil uji organoleptik panelis rata-rata menyukai aroma, rasa, tekstur, dan penampakan dengan nilai numerik masing-masing 3,45; 3,56; 3,65; dan 3,70. Penambahan crude stearin 5%, CBS 20%, dan polifenol 0,2% menghasilkan milk chocolate analog dengan karakteristik kimia, mikrobiologi, dan sifat organoleptik yang terbaik diantara semua perlakuan

Full Text:

PDF (Indonesian)

References


Ackar, D., K.V. Landic., M. Valek., D. Subaric., B. Milicevic., J. Babic and H. Nedic. 2013. Cocoa polyphenols : can we consider cocoa and chocolate as potential functional food. Journal of Chemistry 13 : 289-296.

Arts I.C.W., Hollman P.C.H., and Kromhout D. (1999): Chocolate as a source of tea flavonoids. The Lancet, 354, 488.

Bernaert, H., Blondeel, I., Allegaert, L dan Lohmueller, T. (2012). Industrial treatment of cocoa in chocolate production: health implications. Dalam: Paoletti, R., Poli, A., Conti, A. dan Visioli, F. (eds.) Chocolate and Health, hal 17-31. Springer-Verlag, Italia.

Bigalli, G.L. (1988). Practical aspects of the eutectic effect on confectionery fats and their mixtures. The Manufacture and Confectionery, 68, 65–80.

Clark, S., Castello, M., Drake, M.A., & Bodyfelt, F. 2009. The Sensory Evaluation of Dairy

Products. 2nd ed. Springer. USA.

Essentiellea, H., 2009. Komposisi minyak kelapa sawit. http://lemak minyak .blogspot.com/2009/08/palm-stearin .html, Teknologi Minyak dan lemak. Diakses tanggal 15 Oktober 2011.

Hafidhah N, Hakim RF, Fakhrurrazi. Pengaruh ekstrak biji kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) terhadap pertumbuhan enterokokus faecalis pada berbagai konsentrasi. Jurnal Canius Dent 2017; 2(2).

Hashim P., Selamat J., Syed Muhammad S. K. and Ali A., 1998. ”Effect of mass and turning time on free amino acid, peptide-N, sugar and pyrazine concentration during cocoa fermentation”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 78(4).543-550.

Hasibuan, A.H., dan Siahaan, D. (2010). Proses rafinasi minyak inti sawit mentah terhidorgenasi dalam produksi cocoa butter substitute. Jurnal Penelitian Kelapa Sawit, 18(2): 55-64.

Hasibuan, H.A dan Siahaan, D. (2012). Pengaruh waktu conching terhadap mutu produk cokelat berbahan cocoa butter substitute. Jurnal Penelitian Kelapa Sawit, 20(1): 33-41.

Hussain, N., Agus, B.A.P., Rahim, S.N.F.A., Halim, H.S.A. (2018). Comparison of quality characteristics between compound and pure milk chocolate. MOJ Food Processing & Technology, 6(3): 292-296.

Kattenberg, H.R. (2001). Performance of cocoa butter in chocolate. The Manufacture and Confectionery, 2, 49–53.

Koswara, S. 2006. Pewarna Pangan. Ebookpangan.com.

Kowalska, J. and A. Sidorczuk. 2007. Analysis of the effect of technoligical processing on changes antioxidant properties of cocoa processed Products. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences 57 (2A) : 95-99.

Mastegar, 2010. Asam Lemak Bebas. wordpress.com. Diakses tanggal 15 Oktober 2011

Meng, C.C., A.M.M. Jalil and A. Ismail. 2009. Phenolic and theobromine contents of commercial dark, milk and white chocolates on the Malaysian market. Molecules 14 : 200-209.

Misnawi, Jinap S., Jamilah B., and Nazamid S. 2003. ”Effects of incubation and polyphenol oxidase enrichment on colour, fermentation index, procyanidins and astringency of unfermented and partly fermented cocoa beans”. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 38. 285-295.

Misnawi, B. Jamilah and S. Nazamid. 2004. Effect of polyphenol concentration on pyrazine formation during coco liquor roasting. Food Chemistry 85 (1) : 73-80.

Misnawi, 2008. Karakteristik Campuran Lemak Kakao dan Stearin Dalam Sistem Cokelat Susu, Pelita Perkebunan, 24(3), 241—255.

Muchtar, H dan Y. Helmi Diza. 2011. Pengaruh Penambahan acrude Stearin Minyak Kelapa Sawit Terhadap Kestabilan Darkn Chocolate. Jurnal Litbang Industri, Vol 1, No. 1. Hal 1 – 7.

Naik, B., and Kumar, V. (2014). Cocoa butter and its alternatives: a review. Journal of Biroesources Engineering and Technology, 2(1): 1-11.

Natsume, M., N. Osakabe, M. Yamagishi, T. Takizawa, T. Nakamura, H. Miyatake, T. Hatano and T. Yoshida. 2000. Analysis of polyphenols in cacao liquor, cocoa and chocolate by normal phase and reversed phase HPLC. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 64 (12) : 2581-2587.

Nazaruddin, R., Seng, L. K., Hassan, O., and Said, M. 2006. Effect of pulp preconditioning on the content of polyphenols in cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) during fermentation. Indust. Crops Prod. 24, 87-94.

Pokorný, J., N. Yanishlieva, and M. Gordon. 2001. Antioxidants in Food: Practical Applications. London: Woodhead Publishing.

Prayoga, R, D, Murwani, R, Anwar, S. 2013. Polyphenol extracts from low quality cocoa beans: antioxidant, antibacterial and food colouring properties. IFRJ. 20(6):3275-3281.

Ranneh, Y., F. Ali and N.M. Esa. The protective effect of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in colon cancer. Jof nutrition and food science . 2013; 3 (2) : 190- 3.

Redovnikovic, I.R., K. Delonga, S. Mazor, V. Dragovic-Uzelac, M. Caric and J. Vorkapic-Furac. 2009. Polyphenolic content and composition and antioxidative activity of different cocoa liquors. Czech Journal of Food Sciences 27 (5) : 330-337.

Rohan T. A., 1964. ”The precursors of chocolate aroma: A comparative study of fermented and unfermented cocoa beans”. J Food Sci. 456-459.

Rosniati, Kalsum, A. H. R Efendi, dan Jamilah. 2020. Karakteristik milk chocolate couverture dan milk chocolate analog Menggunakan cocoa butter substitute (cbs) dan Crude stearin dari minyak kelapa sawit. JIHP, Vol. 15 (2), hal 53-62

Steinberg, M.K. 2002. The Globalization of a Ceremonial Tree: The Case of Cacao (Theobroma Cacao) among the Mopan Maya. Economic Botany 56 (1): 58–65. https://www.jstor.org/stable/425652.

Torres-Moreno, M., E. Torrescasana, J. Salas-Salvado, and C. Blanch. 2015. Nutritional compotition and fatty acids profile in cacao beans and chocolate with different geographical origin and processing conditions. Journal of Food Chemistry. 166: 125-132.

Voltz, M., & Beckett, S.T. 1997. Sensory of Chocolate. Presented at the ZDS Chocolate echnology Conference at Anuga Food Technology, 49.

Wang, F., Liu, Y., Shan, L., Jin, Q., Wang, X., Li, L. (2010). Blooming in cocoa butter substitute based compound chocolate: investigations on composition, morphology and melting behavior. Journal of American Oil Chemyst Society, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-010-1604-z.

Waterhouse A.L., German J.B., Walzem R.L., Hansen R.J., and Kasin-Karakas S.E.

(1999): Is it time for a wine trial? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68, pp. 220221.

Watson, R.R., V.R. Preedy and S. Zibadi.2012. Chocolate in Health and Nutrition. Humana Press brand of Springer, New York Heidelberg Dordrecht London. 541p.

Winarno, F.G., 1997, Kimia Pangan dan Gizi, Gramedia Pustaka Utama : Jakarta.

Winarno, FG. 2002. Pengantar Teknologi Pangan. Penerbit PT.Gramedia Pustaka, Jakarta.

Winarno, F.G. 2004. Kimia Pangan dan Gizi. PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta.

Wollgast, J and E. Anklam, 2000.“Polyphenols in chocolate: is there a contribution to human health?” Food Research International, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 449–459.

Wulandari, Suswati E, Misnawati. Efek antibakteri ekstrak etanol biji kakao (Theobroma cocoa L.) terhadap pertumbuhan shigella dysentria secara in vitro. Jurnal medika planta 2012; 1(5) : 69-73.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33104/jihp.v16i2.7156

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Industri Hasil Perkebunan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Our journal indexed by:




Copyright © BALAI BESAR INDUSTRI HASIL PERKEBUNAN, 2019.(p-ISSN 1979-0023 | e-ISSN 2477-0051 ). Powered By OJS

Theme design credited to MEV edited by BBIHP